The international scientifi c community has now determined that the change is in large part man-made and it is therefore crucial tat all countries in the world make a commitment to fi ght it and hopefully reverse its course.
The direct link between factors such as "greenhouse gas" emissions and global warming has impacted economic and energy policy choices of the most sensitive nations for some time, increasingly spreading a culture of sustainability.
In Italy, the current energy policy guidelines are defi ned by the "20-20-20 Climate and Energy Package" which is part of the strategy, "Europe 20-20-20".
In 2011, the European Commission published its "Roadmap 2050", a document drawn up specifi cally to address the issue of sustainability and the cross-border effects of phenomena that cannot be managed purely at a national level. The aim of these new guidelines is to achieve the almost total decarbonisation of our economy, with the ultimate goal of keeping global warming as a result of anthropogenic climate change below 2° C.
As an intermediate step of the process outlined, in October 2014 the European Council reached an agreement on the environmental and energy policy for 2030, defining:
- a binding target to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% compared to 1990 levels;
- a binding target at EU level, but not for the individual Member states, for 27% of the final gross consumption of electricity to be produced from renewable energy sources; the Commission will set the national target under a new governance system that will have to be drawn up in the near future;
- an indicative target of 27% increase in energy efficiency, which is not binding for the EU or the Member States.
- commits each signatory country, setting overall objectives for all parties, in contrast to the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol;
- institutionalises a five-year review process of data and of national targets;
- recognises the need to keep the average increase in the Earth's temperature "well below" 2 °C, making all possible efforts to keep it under 1.5 °C;
- anticipates the need to make further efforts to keep global warming within these values, recognizing that the national voluntary programs undertaken by the parties to the United Nations Conference is not enough.